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The air cavities inside the skull in the cheek, forehead, eye and nasal areas, whose duct mouth parts merge with the nasal air duct, are called sinuses.

Sinuses perform functions such as cleaning, moisturizing and heating the air taken in through the nose and providing sound resonance. The sinuses, which are the first defense mechanism that protects vital organs and structures in the skull, such as the brain and eyes, against impacts, also reduce the weight of the skull and keep the head upright and balanced.


Sinuses are divided into 4 different groups according to their location in the skull:

Maxillary Sinuses: It consists of 2 sinuses, one on each cheek. It develops in parallel with embryo development, is present at birth and reaches a significant size at the age of 3 years.

Ethmoid Sinuses: It is made up of many air sacs located around the eyes and in the upper part of the nose. It develops in parallel with the development of the embryo, is present at birth and reaches the adult level by the age of 12.

Sphenoid Sinuses: It is located at the back of the nose, in the deep part of the skull. Its formation is completed at the age of 2 and its filling with air at the age of 5.

Frontal Sinuses: It consists of 2 sinuses located in the forehead area. Its formation is completed at the age of 6 to 8 years and it separates from the ethmoid sinus. It reaches its normal size in the next 8-10 years.

The bony surfaces of the sinuses are covered with a movable layer that secretes a mucous-like secretion (mucus). The epithelium (tissue structure) inside the sinuses is identical to the tissue structure of the nose and all sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity. Any infection in the nose causes swelling and edema of the nose. This disturbance prevents the passage of mucus produced by the sinuses and sent through the nasal cavity into the throat and esophagus. The mucus builds up in the sinuses and leads to increased pressure.

Why does sinusitis occur?

The nose and sinuses are the structures that clean the inhaled air, that is, they store dirt, dust, viruses, bacteria and toxins and send clean air to the lungs. For this reason, viruses and bacteria that can cause infection are always present in these areas. Sinuses that can fulfill their function do not become inflamed. However, if there is a pathological and/or environmental effect such as upper respiratory tract infection, allergic reactions, turbinate hypertrophy (nasal flesh growth), deviation (bone / cartilage curvature), obstruction of sinus canals, adenoid growth in children, sudden pressure changes during submarine diving and airplane travel, excessively polluted air and smoking, sinus ventilation is disrupted and inflammation occurs. Sinusitis is the inflammation of the mucosa (mucus) lining the sinus cavities due to various factors. They take different names according to the course and duration of inflammation:

Acute Sinusitis: Sinusitis lasting less than 2 weeks

Subacute Sinusitis: Sinusitis lasting 2 weeks to 3 months

Chronic Sinusitis: Sinusitis lasting more than 3 months.

Recurrent Sinusitis: 4 or more recurrent sinusitis within 1 year.

Measures to prevent the occurrence of sinusitis include not staying in cold environments for a long time, drying the hair after bathing or rain, not leaving it wet, adjusting the oxygen, humidity and temperature levels of the living environment well, not breathing cigarette smoke, avoiding being in places where dust and smoke that cause allergies are dense.

What are the Symptoms of Sinusitis?

Sinusitis symptoms vary from person to person depending on the severity of the cold or flu infection, the immune system of the individual, and whether there is a pathological problem in the nasal area. The most common symptoms:

  • Pain and pressure with a feeling of fullness in the part of the head and face that includes the sinus areas (increased when the head is tilted forward),
  • Nasal congestion, snoring,
  • Sore throat, impaired voice, cough that increases at night,
  • Thick viscous nasal and/or nasal discharge of yellow/green color,
  • Bad breath, tooth and gum pain,
  • Odor and taste disturbance,
  • Fatigue and mild fever,
  • (in children) Cough, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting.
  • In order to make the correct diagnosis, endoscopic examination, imaging and tomography methods are used in combination.

How is Sinusitis Treated?

Sinusitis negatively affects the quality of life not only physically but also psychologically. The problems experienced also cause secondary problems in the stomach, intestines and lungs. In addition, visual impairment and blindness may occur as a result of the spread of inflammation to the eye sockets, meningitis or abscess may occur when it spreads to the meninges and the inner region of the brain, and cysts that dissolve bone tissue may form. Therefore, sinusitis must be treated medically or surgically to eliminate the factors that cause sinusitis.

The aim of sinusitis treatment is to suppress and destroy the viruses and bacteria that cause inflammation and to open the closed canals and openings from the sinuses to the nasal cavity. For this reason, medication should be considered multifaceted and antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants, painkillers and sprays should be used. Surgical methods such as Endoscopic Sinus Surgery and Balloon Sinoplasty Surgery are used for the treatment of sinusitis that does not respond to medical treatment and cannot be cured, and interventions are performed by reducing the bone that causes obstruction, reducing the tissue or concha, and expanding the sinus canal.

Since sinus formation in children is not yet complete, surgical intervention is only performed in mandatory cases. Adenoid or tonsil removal operations and supportive medical treatments are applied.

Dressing in the form of cleaning the inside of the nose after surgical intervention is very important. Especially allergic sinusitis may recur after a while.

Acute Sinusitis

Acute Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses that occurs mostly after upper respiratory tract infections such as colds and flu infections and has a maximum disease duration of 2 weeks. Common complaints include nasal congestion, yellow/green colored thick viscous nasal and/or nasal discharge, sore throat, cough, pressure that increases when the head is tilted forward, pain and fullness in the part of the head and face that includes the sinus areas, pain in the mouth and jaw area, nosebleeds, bad breath, infection around the eyes, voice change, mild fever. Diagnosis can be made by physical examination or radiographic imaging when necessary.

Acute Sinusitis Treatment

Acute sinusitis is usually treated with antibiotic medication for 10-14 days, sometimes up to 21 days. It should be noted that medication should be continued for another 7 days after the yellow/green colored thick nasal and/or nasal discharge ends. Nasal decongestant sprays, allergy and cold medicines, nasal wash kits and painkillers are also used as supportive measures. In severe cases, aspiration can be performed to remove the fluid in the sinus.

What is Chronic Sinusitis?

Sinus inflammation with a disease duration of at least 3 months is called chronic sinusitis. Common complaints of acute sinusitis include persistent nasal congestion, colorless and intense nasal and/or nasal discharge, sore throat, cough, pressure that increases when the head is tilted forward, pain and a feeling of fullness in the part of the head and face that includes the sinus areas, pain in the mouth and jaw area, nosebleeds, bad breath, infection around the eyes, voice change, mild fever, and feeling tired. Diagnosis can be made by sinus endoscopy or sinus tomography when necessary.

Chronic Sinusitis Treatment?

Chronic sinusitis is primarily treated with antibiotic medication. However, surgical treatment is applied in cases resistant to drug treatment. In surgical intervention, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) or Balloon Sinuplasty Surgery (BSS) method is applied. In Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery; pathological disorders that block the channels opening from the sinuses to the nasal cavity are corrected and the channels are opened.

In Balloon Sinoplasty Surgery; similar to the stent application used in cardiovascular surgery, a deflated balloon is placed in the closed sinus canal area and the airway is opened by inflating it.

If you are constantly experiencing problems such as pressure, nasal congestion, snoring, voice distortion, coughing that increases at night, nasal and / or nasal discharge, smell and taste disturbance, weakness and fever in the part of the head and face that includes the sinus areas, you can contact us using our contact information.

Sinusitis Information About

1 Seans
How Many Sessions Are Performed 1 Seans
1 Day
Sensitivity Time 1 Day
5 Years
Duration of Persistence 5 Years
1 Hour
Processing Time 1 Hour
1-2 Days Later
When to Return to Work 1-2 Days Later
Anesthesia Local
1 Day
Full Recovery Time 1 Day
Everyone's body structure is different. Therefore, everyone's treatment process, planning and results also differ. The information given about the procedure is average values. Please contact us for detailed information. communication get along.

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Comments from our patientsComments from our patients

Melisa Aktürk

In my first meeting with Mr. Elad, I trusted him immediately. He is both a warm-blooded, friendly doctor and explains everything in detail and honestly. I am in the 1st month of my surgery. I had a bruise-free, painless process. I also already love the shape of my nose :) If you want a natural nose that is compatible with your face, Mr. Elad is the right choice. His team and himself are very interested. They do not think that the surgery is over. I can recommend my doctor with peace of mind. I thank him and his team endlessly.

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